INTEGRATION

If you liked ‘INTERVENTION – The Pandora Virus’, and if you’d like to know what Ayden and Tess face next, good news. The sequel, ‘INTEGRATION – Hacking Humanity’ isn’t far off.

Although it follows directly on from the first novel, ’INTEGRATION – Hacking Humanity’ is going in quite a different direction. Whereas ‘INTERVENTION – The Pandora Virus’ was primarily concerned with biotechnology, the sequel contemplates the human race’s continued integration with information technology.

‘INTEGRATION – Hacking Humanity’ is currently in the editorial phase. Right now it is undergoing a professional editorial assessment by the wonderful Bella Vendramini, at manuscriptassessment.wordpress.com.

Stay tuned.

Motion(less) in the ocean

I don’t want to sound like Dr Doom but I came across two disturbing articles recently.

In ‘The ocean is broken’ (Greg Ray, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Oct 2013) a sailor compared the empty ocean he traversed recently (in his sailing trip from Melbourne, Australia to Osaka, Japan) with the bountiful plenty experienced on the same trip only ten years ago. Empty of life that is. But full of garbage.

Then I read ‘Choking oceans complete ‘deadly trio’ for marine life ‘ (New Scientist No 2938, 12 Oct 2013) referring to the recent International Program on the State of the Ocean study. IPSO Scientific Director, Alex Rogers tells us that “The health of the oceans is spiraling downwards far more rapidly than we thought”. Anyone remotely interested in the oceans will have heard about the problems of ocean acidification and surface seawater warming. The third threat is falling oxygen levels (which follow the warming). A dramatic example is the massive loss of marine life off North America in the last decade, a region which showed no evidence of low oxygen levels prior to 2000.

This is happening fast.

Acidification, warming, deoxygenation… three strikes and we’re out?

Top 10 reasons scientists should stop attacking religious beliefs

Top 10 reasons scientists should stop attacking religious beliefs

Have a listen to the slide-show version on YouTube

(Just in case, like me, you suspect the whole science v’s religion thing may have gone a little far.)

reason number…

10 – It isn’t scientific

“If it’s not testable, it’s not science.” Karl Popper, originator of the principle of falsifiability and generally regarded as one of the greatest science philosophers of the 20th century, said, “all knowledge is provisional [and] capable refutation at any moment”. (1)

Arguably this is one of science’s greatest strengths. All theories are subject to challenge at any time.

Equally, the limits to knowledge must be admitted. Ignorance and uncertainty must be recognized fearlessly and explored passionately.

T.H. Huxley – the British biologist known as ‘Darwin’s Bulldog’ because of his fierce advocacy of evolution – called for “the rigorous application of a single principle … follow your reason as far as it will take you … (and) … do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated.” (2)

Far from intellectual cowardice (with the greatest of respect to Darwin’s modern bulldog, Mr. Dawkins) this agnostic approach to knowledge requires intellectual rigor and bravery and lies at the core of science.

As a private individual, feel free to cherish your beliefs as zealously as you wish (including a belief that the universe does not have a creator), but don’t claim them in the name of science. As a scientist (or simply as a scienceophile), be passionately agnostic.

Sources
1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Popper
2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T.H._Huxley

reason number…

top10reasonsb2b9 – It isn’t necessary

In 1633 (only five human lifetimes ago) Galileo was imprisoned for the rest of his life, for believing that the earth revolved around the sun. (3) In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI said that debate between creationism and evolution was an “absurdity,” saying that evolution can coexist with faith. (4)

  • the Church of Latter-day Saints – “leave geology, biology, archeology, and anthropology, no one of which has to do with the salvation of the souls of mankind, to scientific research”,
  • the Episcopal Church – “belief in the glorious ability of God to create in any manner, and in this affirmation reject the rigid dogmatism of the ‘Creationist’ movement”,
  • the United Methodist Church – “science’s descriptions of cosmological, geological, and biological evolution are not in conflict with theology” and “many apparent scientific references in [the] Bible … are intended to be metaphorical [and] were included to help understand the religious principles, but not to teach science”,
  • Evangelical Lutheran Church in America – “God actually may have used evolution in the process of creation”,
  • Presbyterian Church – “evolution and the Bible do not contradict each other”,
  • United Church of Christ – “Evolution helps us see our faithful God in a new way … calling forth life through complex processes spanning billions of years … Evolution also helps us see ourselves anew, as creatures who share a common origin with other species”,
  • Buddhism – the Dalai Lama routinely affirms that “when science proves that Buddhist scriptures are incorrect, then the scriptures should be rejected”. (5)

Certainly there are churches and religious individuals who actively resist science but for the most part, religions have been flexible enough to accommodate science. Doctrines have adjusted, interpretations have changed and most churches are content to accept most scientific knowledge.

You may perceive direct contradictions between scientific knowledge and religious teachings and accordingly be incapable of accepting both but it isn’t necessary for you to do so. You need only stand back and allow others to do so.

If religious people can reconcile science with their religion (and clearly many can) then does it really matter that you cannot?

Sources
3. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo

4. catholicnewsagency.com/news/pope_calls_for_protection_of_environment_says_creationevolution_debate_is_absurdity/
5. pewforum.org/science-and-bioethics/religious-groups-views-on-evolution.aspx

reason number…

top10reasonsc108 – It isn’t smart

When you attack people, you invite a counter-attack. In the case of people whose cultural identity is defined, to a large extent, by religion, you are attacking their society, their friends and family, their way of life. Expect a strong response.

But if you don’t attack their beliefs, if you don’t back them against a wall, you leave the door open for them to support science.

According to Win-Gallup’s 2012 “Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism” survey, 59% of people describe themselves as religious, 23% as ‘not religious’ and 13% as atheist. (6)

It could hardly be described as strategic for the 13% to attack the 59%. To make matters worse you alienate some or all the 23% who, despite being ‘not religious’ choose not to identify themselves with the vocally anti-religious ‘atheist’ group. So attack religious belief and you make it 13% against somewhere between 59% and 82%.

It would be even less smart for the 13% to attack the 59%, not for what they believe, but for what a minority of them believe.

According to a Pew Research survey of religious people in the U.S. (where belief in god is around 88%), only 33% believe that their holy book should be taken literally, word for word. (7)

If the same proportion holds for the rest of the world then roughly a third of Win-Gallup’s 59% – call it 20% – believe that their holy book should be taken literally.

So up to 80 percent of people are potential supporters of science… unless you attack half of them.

Respect others’ beliefs, even when they contradict yours. Instead of attacking them, invite them to embrace and support science at the same time as they embrace their religion.

Sources
6. wingia.com/web/files/news/14/file/14.pdf
7. religions.pewforum.org/pdf/table-literal-interpretation-of-scripture-by-religious-tradition.pdf

reason number…

top10reasonsd97 – It misses the point

Increasingly, scientific research is showing that religious involvement is associated with better physical health, better mental health, and longer survival.

A U.S. National Health Interview Survey (Hummer & others, 1999) followed 21,204 people over 8 years. After controlling for age, sex, race, and region, researchers found that those who did not attend church were 1.87 times more likely to have died than those who attended more than weekly. This translated into a life expectancy of 83 years for the church-goers compared with 75 years for non church-goers. (8)

If you ask religious people – in a non-adversarial manner – what is important to them about their religion you will, of course, encounter a wide range of replies, but usually focusing on community or purpose or morality. Rarely will you find someone who follows their religion because they have a burning desire to understand where the universe came from.

You may feel that your beliefs about nature and origin of the universe underlie your approach to life, and affect everything you say and do. And from a theological perspective, most religions appear to take the same approach.

But… (as Robert McCauley of Emory University points out) the religions that the majority of people actually practice in their daily lives have a completely different focus (9), so criticizing literal interpretations of their theology will fail to persuade, dismally.

Don’t expect others to give up their source of comfort and community and purpose – and the associated physical and psychological benefits – for questions of cosmology that they may see as of little relevance to their daily lives.

Sources
8. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10332617

9. userwww.service.emory.edu/~philrnm/publications/article_pdfs/Naturalness%20of%20Religion.pdf

reason number…

top10reasonse86 – It isn’t nice

Enough said.

Actually, although it should be enough to simply say, ‘it isn’t nice’, I suspect some think that challenging what they perceive to be falsehood, is more important than being nice, so here’s something to think about.

Robert Cialdini of Arizona State University lists six triggers that influence us to act, to believe, to be persuaded (10). One of these is that people are more easily persuaded by people they like. (The full list is; reciprocity, commitment, social proof, authority, liking and scarcity.)

Psychological experiments (like that of Jerry Burger from Santa Clara University and others in 2001) have showed that compliance to a request can be doubled by simple interactions designed to encourage mild affinity. (11)

If you want to persuade religious people to support science, be pleasant and respectful. Play nice. Enough said?

Sources
10. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Cialdini
11. scu.edu/cas/psychology/faculty/upload/Burger-et-al-PSPB-2001.pdf

reason number…

top10reasonsf125 – The door is pretty wide open

So now for the big, big question: what is the origin of the universe?

No, really.

A singularity we call the Big Bang? Okay well that’s what the standard model says, but what was the origin of the big bang? Cosmologists offer up a zoo of possibilities including;

  • colliding branes
  • a quantum fluctuation in a previous universe
  • a perpetual cycle of bangs and crunches
  • a black hole
  • a superfluid of spacetime
  • it’s just one of an infinite number of universes in the multiverse
  • it’s a hologram projected onto a two dimensional surface
  • it’s a simulation

And while we’re at it… is the universe really five dimensional and shaped like a Pringle or was that eleven dimensions and shaped like a funnel and what the heck is dark matter anyway and does it really exist or do we just have gravity wrong and what’s dark energy and are scientists really telling us they can’t find 96% of the universe?

Okay, so no-one’s perfect but in the context of the ideas above, is the concept of a creator so outlandish? Could the universe simply be a figment of some entity’s imagination? A work of art perhaps? And wouldn’t that make said entity our omnipotent, omniscient god?

The honest answer is, we don’t know. As Stephen Hawking says, “The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.” So lets bravely admit the limits of our knowledge and leave the door open (even just a crack) to the possibility of some sort of creator.

reason number…

top10reasonsg134 – It’s hard to imagine

Essentially, science tells us that at first, space and time didn’t exist. Then for some undetermined reason, a singularity came into being, infinitely small but exploding in size at a fantastic rate. As it grew, it cooled and some of its energy converted into matter and antimatter. Most of this stuff collided with its antiparticle and was annihilated but mysteriously there was a little more matter than antimatter so our universe of matter particles prevailed and the elementary particles grouped together to form atomic nuclei which eventually combined with electrons to form atoms. Strangely, these atoms weren’t evenly distributed though, and so they began to group together to form clouds of dust, galaxies and stars, which created heavier elements. The stars exploded, spraying the universe with the heavy elements which formed planets, upon which some of these heavier elements combined in complex ways to create nucleic acid which somehow began replicating itself, sometimes erroneously and thereby changing and adapting to the environment and becoming more and more sophisticated. These organisms began operating in colonies that, in turn became increasingly sophisticated, developing specialized cells for different functions. These multi-cellular organisms then mutated and changed, becoming worms, fish, dinosaurs and large brained primates who spend inordinate amounts of time wondering why it all happened.

Okay. So in other words…

Explosion. Energy coagulates into hydrogen and helium, which randomly clumps together to form stars which explode to randomly spray the universe with heavier elements, which randomly clump together to form planets and self-organizing, replicating collections of particles which very un-randomly think, feel, live and love: us!

Yeah right. Likely story.

Admit it. It’s hard to stomach, isn’t it? All that happened randomly? Life kick-started itself, completely spontaneously? It’s tempting to attribute some purpose, some guidance to it all, isn’t it? It’s not all that hard to understand the mindset of someone who does, is it?

reason number…

top10reasonsh143 – It isn’t really about assessing the evidence

From what I read, thousands of scientists have assembled a massive body of evidence tracking the motion of stars and galaxies, confirming the accelerating expansion of the universe, and analyzing the cosmic microwave background radiation, all confirming some sort of ‘big bang’.

And mathematicians have modeled the universe backwards and forwards and confirmed the veracity of the standard model of physics and cosmology and the existence, of something like dark matter and dark energy.

But I haven’t done any of that myself. The truth is, I’m not competent to judge the evidence and, with respect, neither are you. Even lifelong cosmologists only study tiny pieces of the jigsaw puzzle individually.

So how do we decide whether science’s picture of the universe has any validity or not?

We do what we always do. We decide whom to trust.

I’m happy to trust science, which has given us medicines and electricity (and cars and phones and washing machines and computers, and…). I observe a disciplined approach to assessing evidence, where claims are subject to independent confirmation and vigorous challenge by appropriate specialists, and I’m comfortable with that.

Religious people trust their church because… it gives them a sense of community or purpose or a basis for their morality… or for whatever reasons they choose.

In practice, for most of us, it isn’t really about assessing cosmological evidence. The difference is simply in whom we choose to trust. It’s not really such a big difference when you think about it that way, is it?

reason number…

top10reasonsi122 – It’s unnatural

Psychologists tell us that from the earliest age, as our minds grapple to understand the world around us, we learn to distinguish between objects (things which are acted on) and agents (things which initiate actions).

In 1999, Deborah Kelemen and colleagues from Boston University showed that young children tend to reason about natural phenomena in terms of purpose. (12)

In 2008, George Newman and his colleagues at Yale University conducted a series of experiments on infants (which reinforced previous experiments with verbal age children). The experiment involved a setup of blocks that would become ordered or disordered after an action. (13) These actions included a rolling ball (an unintentional agent) or a ball with eyes on it (an intellectual agent). Later experiments used a human hand (representing the intellectual agent) and a robotic hand (the unintentional agent). They observed that the children were significantly more surprised when the non-intellectual agent would order the blocks.

It seems we naturally seek the agent hiding behind unexplained actions. It’s a fundamental aspect of our cognitive development and the tendency apparently doesn’t go away with maturity. As adults, we routinely use language that describes inanimate objects as if they were agents, even when we ‘know better’.

So the tendency for people to attribute the order we see around us to an agent, and to imbue that agent with purpose, is a natural function of the way our minds understand the world we live in. It’s arguably more natural than to envisage order spontaneously emerging. In this context, religious belief is natural. Entirely understandable.

And with understanding, comes empathy, and with empathy comes tolerance, and…

Sources
12. scribd.com/doc/16500521/Why-Are-Rocks-Pointy-Childrens-Preference-for-Teleological-Explanations-of-the-Natural-World-Kelemen-1999
13. yalescientific.org/2008/12/through-the-eyes-of-children-what-babies-and-kids-think-of-the-world-around-them/

reason number…

top10reasonsj191 – Tolerance is more important than knowledge.

Albert Einstein said that “imagination is more important than knowledge” not because he didn’t value knowledge. He dedicated his life to the pursuit of knowledge, but he valued imagination even more highly.

In the same way, you could dedicate your life to the pursuit of truth but uphold the principle of tolerance as being even more important.

Yes, the truth is vitally important. Sometimes we make decisions, particularly as societies, of great consequence. And in order to make good decisions, we need to base them on fact, on truth. Decisions based on falsehoods, misunderstandings and delusions can’t be expected to be good ones, and bad decisions sometimes lead to great suffering.

But throughout human history, one thing has led to more suffering than poor decision making.

Whether religious or secular, whether of race or gender or tribe or ideology, intolerance has arguably been at the core of more human-caused suffering than any other source.

No doubt this is what led Karl Popper to say “we should consider incitement to intolerance and persecution as criminal, in the same way as we should consider incitement to murder, or to kidnapping, or to the revival of the slave trade, as criminal.”

So by all means, dedicate your life to pursuing the truth, but when you have to choose between truth and tolerance…

…choose tolerance.

.

.

The tumbling of a single rock…

…can cause a massive landslide.

Is this a political tipping point?

First Chris Christie gave his support to President Obama and now Michael Bloomberg has followed suit, explicitly citing Obama’s attempts to deal with climate change and making a link between climate change and the increased likelihood of extreme weather events like Sandy.

Could some good come from the tragic deaths, from the Big Apple’s suffering? Will this be the seed which grows and flourishes and results in the US declaring “war on climate change”?

I hope so.

Truth or Fiction … New York City Hurricane

Sunday, October 28, 2012

“Hurricane Sandy, a menacing monster of a storm that forecasters said would bring “life-threatening” flooding, churned toward some of the nation’s most densely populated areas on Sunday…

New York went into emergency mode, ordering more than 370,000 people evacuated in low-lying communities from Coney Island in Brooklyn to Battery Park City in Manhattan and giving 1.1 million schoolchildren a day off on Monday. The subway closing was to darken every one of the city’s 468 stations at 7 p.m., for the second time in 14 months.

The National Hurricane Center…said it expected a storm surge of up to 11 feet in New York Harbor, Long Island Sound and Raritan Bay in New Jersey.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/29/us/east-coast-braces-for-severe-storm-surge.html

 

Monday May 16, 2033

Ayden knew the basic facts, but he’d been three at the time. Reyes had been a climatologist. “So what happened?”

“It started the previous Thursday when a powerful but unremarkable storm brewed off the west coast of Africa. By Saturday the U.S. Weather Bureau had issued a hurricane warning for Orlando and Daytona Beach, expecting a category two or possibly three storm to hit on Wednesday.

“But on Tuesday afternoon the storm turned north east toward Bermuda and abnormally warm water fed the damned thing,” Reyes said. “Winds increased to a category five 170 miles per hour, then around midnight it changed direction again. Contradicting all the modeling, it turned due north and picked up forward speed. By 1:00 a.m., the hurricane warning was changed to cover Delaware, New Jersey, and possibly New York, but that didn’t give them much time to wake people up and evacuate.

“The eye of the hurricane passed a few miles west of Manhattan at around 10:00 a.m. on Wednesday morning. Wind speeds had abated somewhat as the storm passed over cooler waters, downgrading it to a category 4 but speeds of 150 miles per hour were recorded as it made landfall. Of course, damage from the wind itself was nothing compared to the storm surge.

George Reyes stopped pacing. He paused, shaking his head slightly at the memory.

“Please go on,” Ayden said.

“Well… the surge coincided with a high tide, reached a height of twenty feet. A mountain of water flooded into New York.

“The financial district in lower Manhattan was submerged, as was Brooklyn, Long Island City, Queens, and JFK Airport. Manhattan’s subway system flooded, as did the Lincoln tunnel.”

George stopped again. He looked through Ayden.

“I lost two friends. And a second cousin. The death toll was eventually tallied at 14,841. And it wasn’t New Orleans this time, it was the Big Apple. In a way, it was like 2001 all over again. From the moment Al Gore’s supporters talked him into another tilt at the presidency, the result was a foregone conclusion, and when he made his, ‘It’s my turn to take us to war’ speech he wasn’t only promising the action we demanded. Gore’s ‘war on climate change’ offered us a morally unquestionable war. And one that wouldn’t involve body-bags.”

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro

Truth or Fiction… smaller fish and dwindling catches by 2050

Sunday September 30, 2012

“Fish are likely to get smaller on average by 2050 because global warming will cut the amount of oxygen in the oceans in a shift that may also mean dwindling catches, according to a study on Sunday.

… ‘The reductions in body size will affect whole ecosystems,’ lead author William Cheung of the University of British Columbia in Canada, told Reuters of the findings in the journal Nature Climate Change.

His team of scientists said a trend towards smaller sizes was ‘expected to have large implications’ for ocean food webs and for human ‘fisheries and global protein supply’.

‘The consequences of failing to curtail greenhouse gas emissions on marine ecosystems are likely to be larger than previously indicated,’ the U.S. and Canada-based scientists wrote.”

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/30/us-fish-idUSBRE88T0JS20120930

 

Tuesday May 9, 2034

“The big stern trawler swayed in the waves. There were at least a dozen men down on the fishing deck, shouting to each other over the noise of the winches, which strained to haul the taught net on board. A great mass emerged from the ocean but the rear doors were left open and most of the men turned away from the net, disgust evident on their faces and in their movements. One of the men worked at the back of the net, releasing it, spilling the gelatinous mess back into the ocean. Another man climbed toward the camera and shouted at it.

“Jellyfish! Fours days out and its just fookin’ jellyfish again! How we supposed to make a fookin’ livin’?””

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro

Truth or Fiction… You won’t need a driver’s license by 2040

Tuesday September 18, 2012

“The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently released predictions that autonomous cars will account for up to 75 percent of vehicles on the road by the year 2040. The organization went even further, forecasting how infrastructure, society and attitudes could change when self-driving cars become the norm around the middle of the century.”

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/18/tech/innovation/ieee-2040-cars/index.html

Wednesday, December 21, 2033

“Walker? Ayden Walker?”

“Yes?”

“I’m Winston Lowe. My name mean anything to you?”

“You patented Rhino Mozzies. I tried to find you. I have questions for you, but you’ve sought me out. What can I do for you?”

“Not here. In my car.”

He gestured toward a two-seater REVA Dart. Its doors unlocked with a click.

“Drive mode. Manual,” Lowe said doing up his seat belt. As soon as Ayden did likewise the car lurched forward silently. Evidently Lowe had already put his foot on the accelerator so that the car was only waiting for the seatbelt to be engaged before proceeding. Within four blocks, the little car’s collision avoidance system had been forced to apply the brakes twice. Ayden didn’t know whether Lowe always drove this badly or whether it was a result of his obvious stress. Perhaps he was even deliberately driving dangerously to unsettle Ayden.

Ayden was glad he didn’t live in an era when cars relied on their human drivers to avoid hitting things.

Lowe didn’t look at Ayden, even when the car was motionless in the traffic. “All right, who do you work for dammit?”

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro

Truth or Fiction… New York Flood Risks Rise

Monday September 10, 2012

“New York is moving too slowly to address the potential for flooding that could paralyze transportation, cripple the low-lying financial district and temporarily drive hundreds of thousands of people from their homes.

… the city is second only to New Orleans in the number of people living less than four feet above high tide — nearly 200,000 New Yorkers, according to the research group Climate Central.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/11/nyregion/new-york-faces-rising-seas-and-slow-city-action.html?_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20120911

Thursday September 10th, 2015

“It started the previous Thursday when a powerful but unremarkable storm brewed off the west coast of Africa. By Saturday the U.S. Weather Bureau had issued a hurricane warning for Orlando and Daytona Beach, expecting a category two or possibly three storm to hit on Wednesday.

“But on Tuesday afternoon the storm turned north east toward Bermuda and abnormally warm water fed the damned thing,” Reyes said. “Winds increased to a category five 170 miles per hour, then around midnight it changed direction again. Contradicting all the modeling, it turned due north and picked up forward speed. By 1:00 a.m., the hurricane warning was changed to cover Delaware, New Jersey, and possibly New York, but that didn’t give them much time to wake people up and evacuate.

“The eye of the hurricane passed a few miles west of Manhattan at around 10:00 a.m. on Wednesday morning. Wind speeds had abated somewhat as the storm passed over cooler waters, downgrading it to a category 4 but speeds of 150 miles per hour were recorded as it made landfall. Of course, damage from the wind itself was nothing compared to the storm surge.”

George Reyes stopped pacing. He paused, shaking his head slightly at the memory.

“Please go on,” Ayden said.

“Well… the surge coincided with a high tide, reached a height of twenty feet. A mountain of water flooded into New York.

“The financial district in lower Manhattan was submerged, as was Brooklyn, Long Island City, Queens, and JFK Airport. Manhattan’s subway system flooded, as did the Lincoln tunnel.”

George stopped again. He looked through Ayden.

“I lost two friends. And a second cousin. The death toll was eventually tallied at 14,841. And it wasn’t New Orleans this time, it was the Big Apple. In a way, it was like 2001 all over again.”

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro

Truth or fiction… regulatory DNA

Wednesday September 5th, 2012 – Bits of Mystery DNA, Far From ‘Junk,’ Play Crucial Role

“The human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that once were dismissed as “junk” but that turn out to play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave.”

…”As scientists delved into the “junk” – parts of the DNA that are not actual genes containing instructions for proteins – they discovered a complex system that controls genes. At least 80 percent of this DNA is active and needed. The result of the work is an annotated road map of much of this DNA, noting what it is doing and how. It includes the system of switches that, acting like dimmer switches for lights, control which genes are used in a cell and when they are used, and determine, for instance, whether a cell becomes a liver cell or a neuron.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/science/far-from-junk-dna-dark-matter-proves-crucial-to-health.html?ref=science

 

Friday May 6th, 2033

“Okay, you were naïve and optimistic. I get that. But this was decades ago. Most of the research was focused on single nucleotide traits, which account for, what, a few percent of intelligence?”

“Around 4 percent, out of roughly 50 percent regarded as genetic,” Cate said.

“So the other 45 percent emerges from the complexity of lots of different genes switching on and off as neurons are created, migrate all over the brain, establish pathways and are pruned, and all this not only within the womb but through the organism’s …” Ayden’s voice trailed off for a moment.

“Through my lifetime. Which means the protein coding sequences wouldn’t have been enough. You would’ve have had to include regulatory code as well. Genes for RNA interference.”

“Yes,” Cate said. “In fact, most of our work focused on regulatory processes. Smart people and dumb people are made up of the same protein soup. Actually, it was even worse than that. In the end, we had to look beyond DNA.”

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro

Truth or fiction… vanishing icecap

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Wednesday August 29th, 2012 – Arctic ice low heralds end of 3-million-year cover

“From 1979 to 2000, the average volume of Arctic ice in September was 12,000 cubic kilometres. This year, it is less than 3000 cubic kilometres. “In plain words,” says Fortier, “we are three-quarters of the way to a summertime ice-free Arctic Ocean, with all the climatic, geopolitical, environmental and economic consequences.”

– http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528802.200-arctic-ice-low-heralds-end-of-3millionyear-cover.html

 .

Friday April 8th, 2033

The overly-handsome young presenter wore a wool suit and scarf but no hat or gloves. Over his shoulder the cloudless sky was an intense purple-blue.

“We’re here,” he said. “I’m standing at the North Pole.” The camera pulled back from the reporter, revealing the white painted metal deck of a ship.

“Of course, I’m also floating at the North Pole because for the first time in human history the Pole is ice free. And that’s not all,” he said slipping a little thermometer from his jacket pocket.

“It’s two degrees above freezing! Now, the whole Arctic isn’t ice-free yet. Scientists say that’s still a decade away. In fact tomorrow, we’re hoping to take you to the edge of the ice sheet and we’ll go looking for polar bears! None have been spotted so far this year, but maybe we’ll get lucky!

His face became serious. “We have to wait for the all-clear though. There’s been another methane event, and the levels are still too high for our safety.”

An inset window showed a section of ocean alongside an ice sheet. The ocean was foaming with bubbles.

…read more in INTERVENTION by WRR Munro